Economic development, urbanization and environmental changes in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: relations and policies
Thanh Le Van, Institute for Economic Research
As a reason of the implementation of Renovation policy, in recent years, urbanization has been taking place rapidly and vigorously in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC). A lot of industrial and export-processing zones as well as new residential areas were established, accelerating urbanization, economic transformation, and development of HCMC. The population has been also continually increasing, estimated to be over 7 millions persons, of which migrants make up about a third. It could be seen that urbanization has caused both positive and negative impacts on socio-economic, demographic and environmental fields in all geographic areas of HCMC at different levels. The survey results show changes in various aspects, including: land-use, employment, income, children’s education, housing, healthcare, service use, entertainment and lifestyles. Urbanization is a process, which takes place differently in different districts of HCMC. Therefore, policy makers have to make divers recommendations to solve the impacts of urbanization at different levels.