Brain drain or brain gain? In which direction does the Brazilian diaspora go?
Duval Fernandes, Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais
Alexandre M.A. Diniz, PUCMINAS
According to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Brazil, approximately 4 million Brazilians live abroad, figure that represents about 2% of the total population. In many countries Brazilian communities are significant, playing a major role in the overall immigration context. In Japan, for example, Brazilians represent the third most import immigrant group; while, in Portugal Brazilians account for the largest immigrant community. In terms of instruction Brazilian out-migrants display higher levels of education than non-migrant Brazilians. This situation suggests the presence of a Brain–Drain international relationship. On the other hand, border control data suggest that the arrival of highly qualified immigrants in Brazil has grown over 81% between 2004 and 2007, a situation that indicates a “Brain Gain” process. This paper explores, based on census data and other sources of information, the degree to which the Brazilian international migration system is dominated by Brain Drain or Brain Gain relationships