The labour market integration of foreign trained engineers in Canada: does gender matter?
Monica Boyd, University of Toronto
Lisa Kaida, University of Toronto
Using the full 2006 Canadian census, this study focuses on the labour market integration of internationally educated engineers aged 30-54. Two indicators of labour market insertion (or the lack thereof) are analysed: 1) occupational location for the experienced labour force, including work in engineering occupations; and 2) annual earnings. The analysis shows that compared to the Canadian born, being internationally educated carries a penalty as does being female. Immigrant women who received their degrees outside Canada are more likely than their male counterparts or Canadian-born women and men to hold occupations that are not directly related to the study of engineering; they also have the lowest average earnings of all comparable groups. As well, the earnings penalty or “cost” of not being in occupations related to engineering training is highest for immigrant women. These findings are consistent with the “double negative effect” in which re-accreditation barriers intersect with gender-related barriers.